Pharma Solutions

Imaging Assessments

cT1 (Fibro-inflammation)

cT1 (an important MR relaxation parameter) has been used as a biomarker for the assessment of myocardial inflammation and fibrosis and is an emerging technique for rapid quantification of hepatic fibro-inflammatory disease. T1 is affected by how tightly bound the water protons are and is essentially a surrogate measure of free water in the tissue. Free water, and therefore T1, increases with fibrosis and inflammation. However, T1 is also affected by the presence of iron and this effect must be corrected for (corrected T1, or cT1). cT1 is scanner-, field strength- and vendor-independent, allowing standardization of this measurement across different MRI systems and sites.

T2* (Correlate of Iron)

Iron overload is quantified using a T2* map, which is one of the MR relaxation parameters. Its value is heavily influenced by disturbances in the local magnetic field, such as those caused by the presence of iron. T2* is used as a biomarker in the assessment of hepatic iron overload, or hemosiderosis and to obtain the corrected T1 measure.

MRI-PDFF (Liver Fat)

Liver fat is quantified using state-of-the-art proton density fat fraction (PDFF) calculations, which exploit the chemical-shift in water and fat separation to estimate hepatic fat concentration. PDFF is an MR-based biomarker that can be readily standardized across MR platforms, scanners and field strengths to provide a reproducible and robust measure of liver fat.


MRCP+ calculates quantitative 3D biliary system models that enable measurement of bile duct widths and automatic detection of regions of variation of duct widths. MRCP+ includes tools for interactive segmentation and labeling of the biliary system and structures. It allows for regional volumetric analysis of the biliary tree, pancreatic duct, and gallbladder.

Read More